Lithium iron phosphate (LFP) batteries and ternary lithium batteries (NCM) are two common lithium-ion batteries. They have significant differences in many aspects, including energy density, safety, life, low temperature performance and manufacturing cost. aspect. Here are the main differences between these two types of batteries:

1. Energy density

- Ternary lithium battery (NCM): It has higher energy density, usually around 240Wh/kg, which means that under the same weight, ternary lithium battery can store more electrical energy, thereby providing longer cruising range.

- Lithium iron phosphate battery (LFP): The energy density is low, about 140Wh/kg, so a lithium iron phosphate battery of the same weight provides a shorter cruising range.

2. Security

- Ternary lithium batteries: Thermal stability is relatively poor, especially at high temperatures, and there is a risk of thermal runaway, which may cause the battery to overheat or even catch fire.

- Lithium iron phosphate battery: It has better thermal stability, and its chemical composition only begins to decompose between 500°C and 600°C, so it is considered safer.

3. Lifespan

- Ternary lithium battery: has a short cycle life, generally starting to decay after more than 2,000 charge and discharge cycles, about 6 years.

- Lithium iron phosphate battery: Longer cycle life, up to more than 3500 times, some even claim to be able to reach 5000-6000 times, so the battery has a longer service life.

4. Low temperature performance

- Ternary lithium battery: It can still maintain good discharge performance in low temperature environment (-30℃), and the cruising range in winter is attenuated by less than 15%.

- Lithium iron phosphate battery: poor low-temperature performance, the lower temperature limit is -20°C, and the electrical performance will decrease significantly in low-temperature environments.

5. Manufacturing costs

- Ternary lithium battery: Due to the use of precious metals such as nickel and cobalt, production costs are high.

- Lithium iron phosphate battery: does not contain precious metal elements, has low production costs and low raw material prices.

6. Environmental impact

- Ternary lithium batteries: Because they contain metals such as cobalt, they may have a certain impact on the environment, especially during the mining and recycling process.

- Lithium iron phosphate battery: Since it does not contain cobalt, it has less impact on the environment.

When choosing a battery, you need to decide which battery to use based on specific application scenarios and needs.

For electric vehicles pursuing long driving range, they may be inclined to choose ternary lithium batteries with higher energy density;

For applications with extremely high safety requirements, such as home energy storage systems, lithium iron phosphate batteries may be chosen.